DIAMOND EDUCATION GUIDE
Choosing the right diamond is a very difficult and personal decision. We want you to confidently choose the perfect diamond for you. With that in mind, we developed this Diamond Education Guide.
Diamonds are evaluated based on the 4 C’s:
• Cut, Color, Clarity, and Carat Weight.
Diamonds are unique among gemstones in their ability to transmit light. That's why they sparkle so intensely. We often think of a diamond's cut as shape (round, emerald, pear), but a diamond's cut grade is really about how well a diamond's facets interact with light.
Precise artistry and workmanship are required to fashion a stone so its proportions, symmetry, and polish deliver the magnificent return of light only possible in a diamond.
Cut is crucial to the stone's final beauty and value. And of all the 4Cs, it is the most complex and technically difficult to analyze.
To determine the cut grade of the standard round brilliant diamond - the shape that dominates the majority of diamond jewelry – GIA calculates the proportions of those facets that influence the diamond's face-up appearance. These proportions allow GIA to evaluate how successfully a diamond interacts with light to create desirable visual effects such as:
• Brightness - Internal and external white light reflected from a diamond.
• Fire - The scattering of white light into all the colors of the rainbow.
• Scintillation - The amount of sparkle a diamond produces, and the pattern of light and dark areas caused by reflections within the diamond.
GIA's cut grade also takes into account the design and craftsmanship of the diamond, including its weight relative to its diameter, its girdle thickness (which affects its durability), the symmetry of its facet arrangement, and the quality of polish on those facets.
The GIA Cut Scale for standard round brilliant diamonds in the D-to-Z color range contains 5 grades ranging from Excellent to Poor.
The color evaluation of most gem-quality diamonds is based on the absence of color. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no hue, like a drop of pure water, and consequently, a higher value. GIA's D-to-Z color-grading system measures the degree of colorlessness by comparing a stone under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions to 'master' stones of established color value.
GIA's D-to-Z color-grading scale is the industry's most widely accepted grading system. The scale begins with the letter D, representing colorless, and continues, with increasing presence of color, to the letter Z.
Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye; however, these distinctions make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.
Natural diamonds are the result of carbon exposed to tremendous heat and pressure deep in the earth. This process can result in a variety of internal characteristics called 'inclusions' and external characteristics called 'blemishes'.
Evaluating diamond clarity involves determining the number, size, relief, nature, and position of these characteristics, as well as how these affect the overall appearance of the stone. While no diamond is perfectly pure, the closer it comes, the higher its value. The GIA Clarity Scale has 6 categories, some of which are divided, for a total of 11 specific grades.
• No inclusions and no blemishes visible under 10x magnification
Internally Flawless (IF)
• No inclusions -visible under 10x magnification
Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2)
• Inclusions so slight they are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10x magnification
Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2)
• Inclusions are clearly visible under 10x magnification, but can be characterized as minor
Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2)
• Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification
Included (I1, I2, and I3)
• Inclusions are obvious under 10x magnification which may affect transparency and brilliance
Many inclusions and blemishes are too tiny to be seen by anyone other than a trained diamond grader. To the naked eye, a VS1 and an SI2 diamond may look exactly the same, but these diamonds are quite different in terms of overall quality. This is why expert and accurate assessment of clarity is extremely important.
Diamond carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weighs. A metric "carat" is defined as 200 milligrams.
Each carat can be subdivided into 100 'points.' This allows very precise measurements to the hundredth decimal place. A jeweler may describe the weight of a diamond below one carat by its 'points' alone. For instance, the jeweler may refer to a diamond that weighs 0.25 carats as a 'twenty-five pointer'. Diamond weights greater than one carat are expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.08 carat stone would be described as 'one point oh eight carats'.
All else being equal, diamond price increases with carat weight, because larger diamonds are more rare and more desirable. But two diamonds of equal carat weight can have very different values (and prices) depending on three other factors of the 4Cs: Clarity, Color, and Cut.
It's important to remember that a diamond's value is determined using all of the 4Cs, not just carat weight.
Rough diamonds generally do not show their beauty, they must be cut and smoothed to exhibit the desired brilliance. Diamonds are generally cut into a variety of shapes, each having unique characteristics.
The "brilliant" cut diamond is also the most popular on the market today. A diamonds "cut" has many facets which determine the overall brilliance. More than 100 years ago, a Russian Mathematician named Marcel Tolkowsky calculated the number of cuts necessary to create the reflective properties desired, the fire of a diamond. Today, many advanced scientific methods are used by the GIA and high end designers to create truly brilliant diamonds, the industry standard for round diamonds being 57 facets. This means a round brilliant cut has 57 incredibly small faces all around the top, creating an ideal amount of ways for light to expose the inherent beauty of the diamond.
This cut today is considered a classic style, being more common in the past because of it's larger rectangular facets being less intricate. A truly brilliant emerald is a stunning example of elegance even now. The larger more open faces allow for more light to refract from one angle, usually creating a brighter shine or sparkle. Even with modern science there is no way to ensure a perfect cut. Jewelers through years of experience will be able to inspect many of these criteria with a high degree of precision, yet we are still having a hard time measuring such features at the precision required for modern science. If the diamond is cut too deep, light will escape through the sides making the gem appear darker than desired. If the diamond is cut too shallow, light will be lost out of the bottom losing brilliance.
Inspired by a round cut, the radiant cut shares many features including fire and brilliance. The shape of the gem itself is closer to an emerald, being square but lacking the stair case steps of the emerald instead featuring facets closer to that of a round cut. The overall feel of the cut is closer to that of an emerald because of its closer to square shape. Despite this difference, the radiant cut gives off much more fire than an emerald because of it's facets.
A square from the top, the princess cut signifies absolute brilliance and is the second most popular cut in the world. Known for its sharp uncut pointed corners and collection of 58 facets, it offers a fire and brilliance unparalled. Originally it was known as the Barion cut devised in the 1960's by Basil Watermeyer and named using his 1st initial and all but the 1st letter of his wife's name, Marion. Some say it was considered a "crown" by Basil to his wife. Today it has gained prominence as a distinctive symbol of elegance with its high degree of light return relative to a round cut but having a squarish shape closer to an emerald.
Almost 100 years old, this cut has gained prominance in recent times because of its signature octagon shape, with the inclusion of stair steps from an emerald cut. Also known as the modified square emerald cut, it features a higher crown (taller) with a smaller top face allowing for 72 wide step facets that create a shine rivaling that of the round brilliant cut. The relatively round shape draws the eye towards the center of the diamond and the wider facets.
This cut is commonly termed an ovular shape. It came into commonality relatively recently yet it has a classic romance feel that sets it apart from the rest. It contains some of the largest side facets of any other cut, creating an overall brilliance that's incredibly powerful.
This cut is an ovular take on the round brilliant cut. Featuring many of the same features including brilliance and fire, the oval accents slender profiles and skinny fingers. It's a great alternative to the most popular cut, the round.
This cuts brilliance and fire is only beaten by it's one of a kind symbolism. The absolute representation of love with the same brilliance of the round cut. It's actually a wide pear shape with a dip inwards at the top to create the shape that is truly breathtaking.
Also known as a teardrop, this cut used to be the most popular in the world during the renaissance period but then fell out of the spotlight. Ideally it has 58 facets with a wide variation on the shape of the facets because of the uneven outline of the gem. This creates a varying degree of brilliance that captivates many.
Sometimes referred to as the Navette Cut, this lesser common shape has a rich background. Known for its smile shape, it was made for Louis XIV after he wanted a diamond shaped like the smile of his mistress, Marquise de Pompadour.
Houses have deeds. Vehicles have titles and registration. It only makes sense that you have similar documentation for something as precious as your diamond purchase.
A diamond grading report isn't an appraisal. It is the scientific blueprint of a stone's exact quality characteristics. A GIA Diamond Grading Report is your assurance that your diamond is a natural diamond, with clear disclosure of any treatment to enhance color or clarity. The report provides the kind of clear evidence that is vital to a confident purchase.
DBK is commitment to the Kimberly process.
The Kimberly process, created in November of 2002 under the United Nations Charter, is a joint government, industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds. In compliance with the Kimberly process, Geoffrey’s diamonds states that the jewelry listed on this invoice contains diamonds that have been purchased from legitimate sources not involved in funding conflict and are in compliance with the United Nations resolutions. The seller hereby guarantees that these diamonds are conflict-free, based on personal knowledge and/or written guarantees provided by the supplier of these diamonds.
Like diamonds, colored gemstones are evaluated according to the 4 Cs — color, cut, clarity, and carat weight. Some gemstones come in a wide variety of colors, while others have more uniform palettes. Each type of gemstone is judged by its own potential.
There are three aspects used to describe color: hue, saturation, and tone. Hue is the shade of a particular color -- red, green, blue, and so on. Saturation measures the richness and the purity of the color. Tone is how light or dark the color is. Generally speaking, gemstones of pure hue, medium tone, and high saturation are the most desirable and valuable.
The cut of a gemstone is the way it's shaped and the configuration of its facets. Gemstones usually come in a familiar selection of shapes -- round, oval, cushion, emerald, and pear -- but can be cut into a wide variety of designs. A stone can be cut with facets, like a diamond, or have a smooth shape, which is called a cabochon. A spectacular cut increases the stone's value dramatically.
A gemstone's clarity describes its natural internal characteristics or inclusions. Some gemstones have more inclusions than others, while others have few or none. Emeralds and sapphires, for example, are very valuable gemstones that have inclusions. Aquamarine, citrine, tanzanite, and topaz are examples of stones that have few visible inclusions. Each type of gemstone has a defined clarity standard which differs from stone to stone.
The size of a gemstone is measured by its weight in carats. One carat is equal to one-fifth of a gram (0.2g). Gemstones are measured by their weight, because each stone has a different density. Denser stones look smaller at the same weight as less dense ones. Usually, the heavier a gemstone is, the more it's worth.
Because natural pearls have become so rare, most pearls sold today are cultured pearls. A cultured pearl is created by implanting a tiny bead into an oyster. Over time the oyster gradually coats the bead in multiple layers of natural minerals and proteins. These layers are referred to as nacre and are what give pearls their beautiful luster and color.
Type Of pearls
Akoya Pearls - These are the world’s best known pearls and come from Japan and China.
Tahitian Pearls - Also known as “black pearls” these come from French Polynesia, especially Tahiti, and are parented by the rare black-lipped oyster.
South Sea pearls - These giant pearls come from Australia, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Myanmar.
Pearls are available in a variety of shades and hues ranging from white, pink, gold, blue, green, silver and black. When choosing a color you should go for the color that is most flattering on you.
Guide To Pearl Quality
Luster - The perception of luster depends on the reflection of light. A deeper and more brilliant luster is created more coatings of nacre.
Surface - Cleanliness is important and refers to the absence of blemishes; the less blemishes the higher the quality of the pearl.
Shape - Pearls vary in shape from perfectly round to irregular or baroque.
Size - A size of a pearl is measured by its diameter in millimeters. The price increases with the increase in size because larger pearls are scarcer.
Platinum’s naturally white sheen will never fade or change color, and accentuates the sparkle and brilliance of a diamond. Platinum is the strongest of the jewelry metals. It's density makes it the most secure setting for your diamond or gemstone. Because platinum is a naturally white metal, re-plating is unnecessary; it will always hold its beauty. Platinum jewelry is very rare; in fact, 30 times more so than gold.
Platinum can incur a scratch and develop a patina of wear. The patina is considered by many to be a unique and often desirable attribute. However, the pre-patina shine and reflective luster can easily be revived by merely buffing it with a soft cloth.
Gold has an extraordinary heritage with unique qualities. As an enduring element found naturally in a distinct yellow color, gold is resistant to rust, tarnish, and corrosion. Although gold is very strong, it's also the most malleable of all precious metals.
Pure gold is too soft for everyday wear, so it is alloyed with a mixture of metals like silver, copper, nickel, and zinc to give it strength and durability. Karatage, denoted by a number followed by "k" indicates purity, or how much of the metal in a piece of jewelry is gold. Karatage is expressed in 24ths, making 24k gold, 100% gold. We craft our jewelry using both 18k and 14k gold.
Yellow Gold - Natural gold and color-saturated alloys are what give yellow gold its rich shine. The alloys most commonly used, are copper with a red hue, and silver featuring a green hue. An expert mixture of copper, silver and pure gold gives this precious metal its signature warmth.
White Gold - A silvery white character is what makes white gold so appealing. In order to make the gold white, it is combined with metal alloys that are white in nature and plated with an extremely hard element called rhodium. Although strong, rhodium may wear away over time. Replating is a simple process that can be done to restore whiteness to your jewelry.
Rose Gold - The beautiful pink hue of rose gold is created by using a copper alloy. Again, the overall percentages of metal alloys is the same for rose gold as it is for yellow or white, there is just a different mixture in what alloys are used.
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